kubernetes 常用命令

日常工作中最常用的 kubernetes 命令,做下总结

kubctl 常用命令说明

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[root@ceph0 ~]# kubectl
kubectl controls the Kubernetes cluster manager.

Find more information at: https://kubernetes.io/docs/reference/kubectl/overview/

Basic Commands (Beginner):
create Create a resource from a file or from stdin.
expose 使用 replication controller, service, deployment 或者 pod 并暴露它作为一个 新的
Kubernetes Service
run 在集群中运行一个指定的镜像
set 为 objects 设置一个指定的特征

Basic Commands (Intermediate):
explain 查看资源的文档
get 显示一个或更多 resources
edit 在服务器上编辑一个资源
delete Delete resources by filenames, stdin, resources and names, or by resources and label selector

Deploy Commands:
rollout Manage the rollout of a resource
scale 为 Deployment, ReplicaSet, Replication Controller 或者 Job 设置一个新的副本数量
autoscale 自动调整一个 Deployment, ReplicaSet, 或者 ReplicationController 的副本数量

Cluster Management Commands:
certificate 修改 certificate 资源.
cluster-info 显示集群信息
top Display Resource (CPU/Memory/Storage) usage.
cordon 标记 node 为 unschedulable
uncordon 标记 node 为 schedulable
drain Drain node in preparation for maintenance
taint 更新一个或者多个 node 上的 taints

Troubleshooting and Debugging Commands:
describe 显示一个指定 resource 或者 group 的 resources 详情
logs 输出容器在 pod 中的日志
attach Attach 到一个运行中的 container
exec 在一个 container 中执行一个命令
port-forward Forward one or more local ports to a pod
proxy 运行一个 proxy 到 Kubernetes API server
cp 复制 files 和 directories 到 containers 和从容器中复制 files 和 directories.
auth Inspect authorization

Advanced Commands:
apply 通过文件名或标准输入流(stdin)对资源进行配置
patch 使用 strategic merge patch 更新一个资源的 field(s)
replace 通过 filename 或者 stdin替换一个资源
wait Experimental: Wait for one condition on one or many resources
convert 在不同的 API versions 转换配置文件

Settings Commands:
label 更新在这个资源上的 labels
annotate 更新一个资源的注解
completion Output shell completion code for the specified shell (bash or zsh)

Other Commands:
alpha Commands for features in alpha
api-resources Print the supported API resources on the server
api-versions Print the supported API versions on the server, in the form of "group/version"
config 修改 kubeconfig 文件
plugin Runs a command-line plugin
version 输出 client 和 server 的版本信息

Usage:
kubectl [flags] [options]

Use "kubectl <command> --help" for more information about a given command.
Use "kubectl options" for a list of global command-line options (applies to all commands).

查看所有 namespace 下的 pod

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[root@ceph0 ~]# kubectl get pods --all-namespaces
NAMESPACE NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE
cluster infra-etcd-cluster-0 1/1 Running 0 23d
cluster infra-etcd-cluster-1 1/1 Running 0 23d
cluster infra-etcd-cluster-2 1/1 Running 0 23d
cluster kube-apiserver-5d76df98fc-8vxlb 1/1 Running 0 23d
cluster kube-apiserver-5d76df98fc-ds5q7 1/1 Running 1 23d
cluster kube-apiserver-5d76df98fc-xvbxn 1/1 Running 0 23d
cluster kube-controller-manager-c47df946f-4rvlr 1/1 Running 22 23d
cluster kube-controller-manager-c47df946f-j4sw8 1/1 Running 25 23d
cluster kube-controller-manager-c47df946f-pkhpt 1/1 Running 25 23d
cluster kube-scheduler-688bddcddc-dkw6g 1/1 Running 21 23d
cluster kube-scheduler-688bddcddc-ll2hx 1/1 Running 18 23d
cluster kube-scheduler-688bddcddc-lpbx9 1/1 Running 22 23d
kube-system etcd-192.168.10.186 1/1 Running 1 23d
kube-system etcd-192.168.10.187 1/1 Running 0 23d
kube-system etcd-192.168.10.25 1/1 Running 1 23d
kube-system kube-proxy-4zkgl 1/1 Running 0 23d
kube-system kube-proxy-f56fz 1/1 Running 0 23d
kube-system kube-proxy-m6k8b 1/1 Running 0 23d
kube-system milky-ctrl-9cc54bcbc-8ktvb 1/1 Running 11 23d
kube-system milky-ctrl-9cc54bcbc-9mmbm 1/1 Running 2 23d
kube-system milky-ctrl-9cc54bcbc-mwrgl 1/1 Running 1 23d

参数解释

属性说明
NAMESPACE所在的namespace
NAMEpod 名称
READY当前准备就绪的pod 1/1 表示当前1和就绪1个 如果是pod 异常了 这个值会发生变化
STATUS容器的生命周期
RESTARTSpod 重启的次数
AGEpod 运行的时间

查看所有 namespace 下的 deployments

get deployment 包括namespace 名称 deployment 的name,以及预期副本数 和当前副本数 最新的副本数以及可用的副本数和运行时间

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[root@ceph0 ~]# kubectl get deployments --all-namespaces
NAMESPACE NAME DESIRED CURRENT UP-TO-DATE AVAILABLE AGE
cluster kube-apiserver 3 3 3 3 23d
cluster kube-controller-manager 3 3 3 3 23d
cluster kube-scheduler 3 3 3 3 23d
kube-system milky-ctrl 3 3 3 3 23d

查看pod 的 IP 和node 地址

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[root@ceph0 ~]# kubectl get pods --all-namespaces -o wide
NAMESPACE NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE IP NODE
cluster infra-etcd-cluster-0 1/1 Running 0 23d 192.168.10.187 192.168.10.187
cluster infra-etcd-cluster-1 1/1 Running 0 23d 192.168.10.186 192.168.10.186
cluster infra-etcd-cluster-2 1/1 Running 0 23d 192.168.10.25 192.168.10.25
cluster kube-apiserver-5d76df98fc-8vxlb 1/1 Running 0 23d 192.168.10.187 192.168.10.187
cluster kube-apiserver-5d76df98fc-ds5q7 1/1 Running 1 23d 192.168.10.25 192.168.10.25
cluster kube-apiserver-5d76df98fc-xvbxn 1/1 Running 0 23d 192.168.10.186 192.168.10.186
cluster kube-controller-manager-c47df946f-4rvlr 1/1 Running 22 23d 192.168.10.186 192.168.10.186
cluster kube-controller-manager-c47df946f-j4sw8 1/1 Running 25 23d 192.168.10.187 192.168.10.187
cluster kube-controller-manager-c47df946f-pkhpt 1/1 Running 25 23d 192.168.10.25 192.168.10.25
cluster kube-scheduler-688bddcddc-dkw6g 1/1 Running 21 23d 192.168.10.187 192.168.10.187
cluster kube-scheduler-688bddcddc-ll2hx 1/1 Running 18 23d 192.168.10.186 192.168.10.186
cluster kube-scheduler-688bddcddc-lpbx9 1/1 Running 22 23d 192.168.10.25 192.168.10.25

查看deployment 配置

describe 用来显示一个指定 resource 或者 group 的 resources 详情。

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[root@ceph0 ~]# kubectl describe deployment kube-apiserver -n cluster
Name: kube-apiserver
Namespace: cluster
CreationTimestamp: Fri, 15 Feb 2019 17:20:43 +0800
Labels: <none>
Annotations: deployment.kubernetes.io/revision=1
Selector: component=kube-apiserver
Replicas: 3 desired | 3 updated | 3 total | 3 available | 0 unavailable
StrategyType: RollingUpdate
MinReadySeconds: 0
RollingUpdateStrategy: 25% max unavailable, 25% max surge
Pod Template:
Labels: component=kube-apiserver
Containers:
kube-apiserver:
Image: harbor-inner.env1.qingzhou.com/library/kube-apiserver-amd64:v1.11.1
Port: <none>
Host Port: <none>
Command:
kube-apiserver
--bind-address=$(K8S_KUBE_ADVERTISE_ADDRESS)
--insecure-bind-address=127.0.0.1
--insecure-port=28080
--secure-port=26443
--authorization-mode=Node,RBAC
--allow-privileged=true
--kubelet-https=true
--apiserver-count=3
--kubelet-client-certificate=/etc/kubernetes/pki/kubernetes.pem
--kubelet-client-key=/etc/kubernetes/pki/kubernetes-key.pem
--basic-auth-file=/etc/kubernetes/pki/basic-auth.csv
--enable-bootstrap-token-auth=true
--token-auth-file=/etc/kubernetes/pki/token.csv
--client-ca-file=/etc/kubernetes/pki/ca.pem
--tls-cert-file=/etc/kubernetes/pki/kubernetes.pem
--tls-private-key-file=/etc/kubernetes/pki/kubernetes-key.pem
--service-account-key-file=/etc/kubernetes/pki/ca-key.pem
--logtostderr=true
--log-dir=/var/log/kubernetes
--requestheader-client-ca-file=/etc/kubernetes/pki/front-proxy-ca.pem
--requestheader-allowed-names=kubernetes
--requestheader-extra-headers-prefix=X-Remote-Extra-
--requestheader-group-headers=X-Remote-Group
--requestheader-username-headers=X-Remote-User
--proxy-client-cert-file=/etc/kubernetes/pki/front-proxy-client.pem
--proxy-client-key-file=/etc/kubernetes/pki/front-proxy-client-key.pem
--runtime-config=api/all=true
--enable-aggregator-routing=true
--admission-control=Initializers,NamespaceLifecycle,LimitRanger,ServiceAccount,DefaultStorageClass,DefaultTolerationSeconds,NodeRestriction,ResourceQuota
--service-cluster-ip-range=10.88.0.0/16
--etcd-servers=http://192.168.10.186:14389,http://192.168.10.25:14389,http://192.168.10.187:14389
Requests:
cpu: 250m
Environment:
K8S_KUBE_ADVERTISE_ADDRESS: (v1:spec.nodeName)
Mounts:
/etc/kubernetes/pki/ from k8spki (ro)
/etc/localtime from localtime (rw)
/var/log/kubernetes/ from datalog (rw)
Volumes:
k8spki:
Type: HostPath (bare host directory volume)
Path: /data/user-k8s/cluster/etc/pki
HostPathType: DirectoryOrCreate
datalog:
Type: HostPath (bare host directory volume)
Path: /data/user-k8s/cluster/log/kubernetes
HostPathType: DirectoryOrCreate
localtime:
Type: HostPath (bare host directory volume)
Path: /etc/localtime
HostPathType:
Conditions:
Type Status Reason
---- ------ ------
Progressing True NewReplicaSetAvailable
Available True MinimumReplicasAvailable
OldReplicaSets: kube-apiserver-5d76df98fc (3/3 replicas created)
NewReplicaSet: <none>
Events: <none>

查看pod 的 logs

  • -f 实时输出日志
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kubectl logs -f pod-name -n namspaces
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